Philosophies of Depth, and Britain in the Middle Ages

More zettelkasten guts, I'm afraid. First, a bit from Deep Work, and then more history for my Life in the UK test. Note, on the latter, how the Home Office tiptoes through the brambles that are English troops landing on the shores of an independent Ireland:

The English first went to Ireland as troops to help the Irish king and remained to build their own settlements.

Like he needed help getting his socks on, or some such, was my partner's comment. ;–)

The Philosophies of Depth

Four philosophies: (Pg 102-117) – Monastic: near-complete isolation – Bimodal: long stretches, of at least a day in length, often as part of a retreat from one's normal routine – Rhythmic: scheduled, regular, shorter periods (e.g., 5.30am to 7am each day) – Journalistic: not for the faint of heart – Slipping in and out of deep work as the moments arise – Newport creates a straw-man at the start of each week, and then updates that at the start of each day, as required – Requires great confidence in one's abilities, normally backed by an extensive portfolio – Be realistic in your choice; your lifestyle will dictate the philosophies that are open to you.

Britain in the Middle Ages

Tags: #lituk #history

  • AD 476 to 1485, with a focus on the period following the Norman conquest
  • In 1284, King Edward I of England annexed Wales with the Statute of Rhuddlan.
    • Castles Conwy and Caernarvon were built to secure this power.
    • The last of the Welsh rebellion was defeated by the mid 15th century.
  • Scotland remains unconquered.
    • In 1314, Robert the Bruce defeated the English at the Battle of Bannockburn.
  • The English first came to the independent country of Ireland as troops supporting the Irish king. By 1200, they ruled the Pale (around Dublin). Some important lords in other parts of Ireland also recognised the authority of the English king.
  • Many English knights took part of the Crusades.
  • English kings also fought a long war with France, called the Hundred Years War (which lasted 116 years).
    • In 1415, King Henry V's vastly outnumbered army defeated the French.
  • The English largely left France in the 1450s.
The Black Death
  • In 1348, a disease (likely a plague) killed one third of the population in England (and similar proportions in Wales, and in Scotland).
    • Feudalism — the system of land ownership used by the Normans — began to strain as a reduced population:
      • Put less demand on cereal crops; and
      • Meant there was a labour shortage.
    • Peasants demanded higher wages.
    • People moved to towns.
    • New social classes emerged, including landowners (the beginnings of the gentry).
    • England's hold on the Pale weakened.
Politics and the Law
  • A fledgling Parliament forms; a king's council of advisors, initially, including important noblemen and leaders of the Church.
  • In 1215, King John and all future monarchs are limited by the Magna Carta (or Great Charter): the king is now the same, in the eyes of the law. It also protected the rights of the nobility, and limited the king's ability to collect taxes, and make or change laws.
  • Parliaments were called for the king to consult his nobles, particularly when funds were needed. These became more popular, and two Houses were established.
    • The Commons was largely composed of knights, and wealthy city folk; they were elected, but few could participate.
    • The Lords were just that, and bishops, and wealthy landowners.
  • In Scotland, a Parliament of three Estates came to be: the lords, the commons and the clergy.
  • Legal systems took shape, with a nascent separation of judiciary from the running of government, in both England and Scotland:
    • In England, common law was established, based on previous decisions and tradition.
    • In Scotland, laws were codified (i.e., written down).
  • By 1400, in England, English was the preferred language of the royal court, the Parliament, and official documents.
    • This developed from a melding of Norman French — spoken by the nobility — and Anglo-Saxon — spoken by the peasantry.
  • The Canterbury Tales by Chaucer was one of the first books printed by England's first printing-press-driven publisher, William Caxton.
  • In Scotland, many people continue to speak Gaelic. The Scots language also develops, and poets begin writing in it (e.g., John Barbour's The Bruce, based on his famous battle).
  • English wool becomes a sought-after commodity.
  • Many people come to England, bringing special skills:
    • French weavers
    • German engineers
    • Italian glass-makers
    • Dutch canal-builders
  • The glass in York Minster dates from this time. Some other cathedrals and castles from this time have also survived.
The War of the Roses
  • This period ends with the Battle of Bosworth Field, in 1485. King Richard III, of the House of York, is killed. Henry Tudor, of the House of Lancaster, becomes King Henry VII, taking the former monarch's niece, Elizabeth, as his bride.
  • This thirty-year civil war ends with the birth of the House of Tudor; its symbol, York's white rose inside Lancaster's red.

End of notes

End of Day 51

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Life in the UK test: Geography and Romans

I've started studying for my Life in the UK test next month. What follows are notes from my zettelkasten. Sorry, all: between work, children and this, I don't have time to think about anything more interesting, let alone offload it.

  • Read [[Deep Work by Cal Newport]]
  • Started [[Life in the United Kingdom- A Guide for New Residents]]

Life in the United Kingdom

Tags: #book #uk #lituk Title: Life in the United Kingdom- A Guide for New Residents Author: Home Office Published: 2020 (3rd edition) ISBN: 978-0-11-341340-9

  • Fundamental principles of British life:
    • Democracy
    • The rule of law
    • Individual liberty
    • Tolerance of other faiths and beliefs
    • Participation in community life
  • Responsibilities of all Britons are, to:
    • Respect and obey the law
    • Respect the rights of others, including their right to their own opinion
    • Treat others fairly
    • Look after yourself and your family
    • Look after your local patch, and the environment more broadly
  • The UK offers Britons:
    • Freedom of belief and religion
    • Freedom of speech
    • Freedom from unfair discrimination
    • The right to a fair trial
    • The right to join in the election of a government
  • Geography
    • The official name of the country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
    • Great Britain refers to England, Scotland and Wales
    • The Crown dependencies are:
      • The Isle of Man; and
      • The Channel Islands, made up of:
        • The Bailiwick of Jersey; and
        • The Bailiwick of Guernsey, comprising:
          • Guernsey, Alderney, Sark, and Herm
    • There are 14 British Overseas Territories:
      • Akrotiri and Dhekelia (Cyprus)
      • Anguilla (Caribbean)
      • Bermuda (North Atlantic)
      • British Antarctic Territory
      • British Indian Ocean Territory
      • British Virgin Islands (Caribbean)
      • Cayman Islands (Caribbean)
      • Falkland Islands
      • Gibraltar
      • Montserrat (Caribbean)
      • Pitcairn Islands (Pacific; officially Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands)
      • Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (South Atlantic)
      • South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (South Atlantic)
      • Turks and Caicos Islands (North Atlantic)
    • Britain became permanent separated from the continent by the Channel around 10000 years ago.
  • The UK is governed from Westminster; parliaments or assemblies, with certain devolved powers, sit in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

[[Early British history]] [[British Roman history]] [[British Anglo-Saxon history]] (Empty, for the moment)

Early British history

Tags: #lituk

  • Hunter-gatherers came and went from Britain by a land bridge in the Stone Age
  • The first farmers arrived around 6000 years ago
    • South-east European descent
    • Built the monument Stonehenge
      • Skara Brae on Orkney is another, well-preserved Stone Age site
  • Around 4000 years ago, the Bronze Age begins
    • People worked the metal (and gold), lived in roundhouses and built tombs called round barrows.
  • The British Iron Age (800 BC to AD 100) marks the beginnings of British history
    • It saw the rise of culture, economy — including the first coins to be minted in Britain — and hill forts, such as Maiden Castle, in Dorset.
    • They spoke a language that was part of the Celtic family; related languages are still spoken today in parts of Wales.

On to [[British Roman history]]

British Roman history

Tags: #lituk

  • The Romans, led by Julius Caesar, failed to conquer Britain in 55 BC.
  • In AD 43, Emperor Claudius led a successful invasion
    • Boudicca, the queen of the Iceni, is killed, in what is now eastern England; her statue stands on Westminster Bridge.
  • Areas of what is now Scotland were never conquered by the Romans, however; a wall was built — beginning in AD 122 — under Emperor Hadrian's reign, to keep the Ancient Britons (including the Picts) out.
    • Later, under Emperor Antoninus Pius, construction began on a turf wall — Antonine Wall — in AD 142, representing the northernmost frontier barrier of the Roman Empire.
  • The Roman Army left Britain in AD 410 to defend other parts of the Empire, never to return.
    • They left behind roads, public buildings, a structure of law, and new plants and animals.
  • In the third and fourth centuries AD, the first Christian communities began to appear.

On to [[British Anglo-Saxon history]]

End of Notes

End of Day 49

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I'm writing this as part of the 100 Days To Offload project; join us at: https://100daystooffload.com/